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Deletion is a normal operation for any computer user. Sometimes, it is intentional and sometimes it is accidental. After deleting a file or folder, you realize that the data was extremely important and want the piece of deleted data back. At times, some important data gets deleted either by virus/malware attack or accidentally. In Linux operating system based computers, the data, which has been deleted directly goes into a special folder, 'Trash'. You can restore the deleted file or folder from Trash until the it is being emptied. But, some large files does not go to Trash after deletion and the you can not have any normal option to restore the data. In such situations, any effective Linux recovery software can be immensely helpful in recovering the deleted data back.

Many users take the backup of their data and then delete the content from the storage media. Some others regularly remove all unwanted files form the Trash. In such conditions, if your backup server has been damaged or you have emptied the Trash, your data is in a verge of loss.

But, among all these data loss situations, one interesting fact is that the deleted data never gets permanently erased from the system, until it is being overwritten by some other data. Hence, if you can prevent the media or drive from being overwritten, any deleted piece of data can be recovered by using Linux data recovery software.

Before performing the recovery operation, it will be wise not to work on the disk or drive, from which you want to retrieve your deleted data back. Moreover, it is advised that the sooner and with less number of operations, you run any data recovery Linux utility, there are better chance of recovering the lost data back.

These Linux recovery applications are developed with powerful scanning algorithms to find  out all the deleted files from the troubled drive. Whether Ex2 recovery, Ex3 recovery or Ext4 recovery, all class of these software are extremely read-only in their recovery operations and you can use them without worrying about the safety of other data in the drive. Moreover, with highly interactive and easy to understand instructions, these utilities are pretty simple to use even by the non-technical users.

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Linux has gained enough popularity for its new and updated features. Usually, this operating system is considered as the most regularly upgraded application and hence, with Linux, many users feel that they are having the advantage of using the most recent technologies. Even some feel that Linux is free from virus attack and other data loss problems. However, it is the fact that the technology has nothing to do with data loss. Linux systems also undergo severe data loss situations, leaving the system drive completely inaccessible. Under such cases, you can take the help of any Linux data recovery software to retrieve your data back.

Data loss in Linux can be in any form, starting from the accidental/intentional deletion, formatting of the media, virus/malware attack, operating system malfunction, file system corruption or any other software/hardware contradiction etc.

Whatever, be the reason behind the failure of the Linux system, it is your valuable data in the media which suffers the most. Some data can be urgently required, some are the result of months of research work and some even can never be recreated. In such situations, loss of them caused severe business loss and mental trauma.

Among all the odds, if you have taken regular backups of your data, you always resides at the safe side and can restore the data from a recently taken valid backup. But, if you have not taken any recent backup, you are under serious trouble for sure.

But, among all these troubles of data loss, the good fact is that data from the troubled Linux drive never gets lost permanently. Therefore, if you can take strict measures to avoid overwriting the data in the drive, and run any efficient Linux file recovery utility, then, all you lost data can be easily recovered back.

These undelete Linux applications can work on any Linux operating system based computer system and can recover your lost, deleted, formatted or inaccessible data effectively. These utilities have been developed with many advanced scanning algorithms to dig into the storage media throughly and are completely read-only in nature. Moreover, with detailed instructions at every step and highly graphical user interfaces, they are pretty easy to use even with much technical knowledge.

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File system is a very important part of a Linux system. This is a method of organizing data in the storage media of the computer system. All the information about files is stored in the file system. The operating system learns about them from the file system and then, we able to access them. Sometimes, while working on your Linux computer, if power goes away and the system shuts down improperly, there occurs some sort of corruption to the file system. There may be some other reasons behind a possible file system corruption in a Linux OS based system, such as virus/ malware infection, serious application contradiction, OS malfunction etc. Corruption or damage to the file system results in the inaccessibility of your valuable data in the media and you need any Linux partition recovery utility to get the data back.

In case of file system corruption issues, you may encounter some error messages on the screen. The error message that you may have received can be as below:
“Activating swap partitions: dup2:Bad file descriptor [FAILED]
Setting hostname Leshkow2: dup2Bad file descriptor [FAILED]
/etc/rc.sysinit: /dev/null: Read-only file system
Grep: /proc/mounts: No such file or directory
Checking root file system
dup2: Bad file descriptor   [FAILED]”
Once after getting these error messages, your Linux system just prompts infinitely for the root password to come back to the shell prompt and all your data remains inaccessible.

The reason behind the above problem is due to the corruption of the ‘/dev/null’ entry in the device inode permission. In a way, it can be said that the file descriptor has been corrupted or missing. This is the reason that the Linux OS has failed to locate the boot file and all the data became inaccessible.

Below methods may help you resolve the issue:
Try giving the root password, which may repair the file system.
If the above fails, try with the below steps:
First, mount the root file system by the command – ‘mount -n -o remount,rw /dev/hdxx’
Note: hdxx is the root partition of your system.
Remove the ‘/dev/null’ entry by the command – ‘rm -rf /dev/null’.
Create a new writable entry by ‘mknod -m 666 /dev/null c 1 2’.
Restart the system using ‘shutdown -r’  or ‘shutdown -h’ , which allows the changes to take effect.
Sometimes, with severe corruption the file system, the above measures also fail and you need any effective Linux data recovery software to do the job.

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Linux is a widely used open-source operating system, which has various distributions to meet different kinds of needs. This advanced operating system supports a wide range of file systems, including Ext4, Ext3, and Ext2. Among all Linux file system, Ext3 is the most popular one. It is used as a default file system numerous Linux versions. It is stable and powerful, which provides a wide range of safety measures to prevent files damage and need of Linux data recovery solutions.

Ext3 does not require file system checking when your Linux computer shuts down unexpectedly because of power failure, operating system crash, or any other reason. Ext3 also enables H-Tree indexing and online file growth for large directories. However, irrespective of various advanced security features, this file system may encounter corruption in some situations.

As a practical instance of Ext3 corruption, you may encounter the following error message with your Linux system-

"fsck.ext3 Unable to resolve 'LABEL=boot"

This error message occurs when you boot your Linux based machine after initializing the hardware. The error may also occur if your Linux runs fsck command at boot time.

Grounds of the problem-
    1) This behavior of Linux operating system occurs if any of the below conditions are true-
    2) Boot partition of Linux system is damaged.
    3) Hard drive is affected by bad sectors.
    4) There is a wrong entry of the boot partition in the /etc/fstab file.
    5) Ext3 file system is damaged.


Apply the following Ext3 file recovery solutions to sort out this problem-

In case of boot partition corruption, run fsck on the damaged volume. It detects and fixes file system and hard drive integrity issues.
Mark correct entry of boot partition in the list of volumes. For this purpose, you need to boot your system using Linux Rescue CD.
Replace the bad sector affected storage media with a new disk. However, you need to restore data from an updated backup after this process.

If none of the above methods work, you need to opt for third-party Linux data recovery solutions to get your valuable data back. They let you perform data recovery Linux in an easy and safe way with simple user interface and read-only conduct.

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File system is the core component of any operating system, and Superblock is the most significant data structure for a Linux. Linux supports various files systems, which include Ext2, Ext3 and Ext4. Superblock comprises of numerous data structures, which are used by the file system manager for maintaining file system integrity. In case Superblock gets damaged, you can restore its duplicate copy to make the system accessible. Alternative Superblock is maintained by Linux operating system to prevent data loss and need of Linux recovery solutions.

As a practical example of Superblock corruption in Linux system, you may run across the below error message when you attempt to mount a Linux hard drive volume-

"read_super_block: can't find a reiserfs file system"

This error message renders your significant data inaccessible and lead to severe data loss. In order to retrieve your precious data, you need to identify the root of the problem and perform data recovery Linux by fixing it.

Ground of the issue

One of the major reasons of this issue is Superblock corruption. You may face Superblock corruption due a wide range of reasons, which include-
      1)  Improper system shutdown
      2)  Hardware crash
      3)  Virus infection
      4)  Kernel bugs
To sort out this problem of Linux system, try out any of the below methods-

    * Run # reiserfsck --check /dev/sda1 command on the affected Linux hard drive volume. It checks Superblock corruption.
    * If the above command indicates Superblock corruption, then run # reiserfsck --rebuild-sb /dev/sda1 command. It rebuilds damaged Superblock.
    * Restore data from the most recent and valid backup. It is the most efficient solution to work around such problems.

When all else fail, Linux recovery software come for your help. The applications are particularly designed to perform in-depth scan of whole hard drive and extract all missing, inaccessible, and deleted data from it.

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MBR or the Master Boot record is the first sector in a partitioned data storage device like hard drive. MBR is usually a 512 byte boot sector containing the primary partition table of the hard disk. In Linux system, MBR also stores the machine code instructions to be executed by the operating system after the BIOS passes the pointer to the machine code. Moreover, the MBR holds the unique 32-bit disk signature, which helps in identifying the disk drive and learn its information needed for booting. With all such necessary information in it, if due to any reason the MBR gets corrupted, all the data inside your Linux hard drive becomes completely inaccessible. Under such situations of data loss or inaccessibility, any Linux data recovery utility is of immense help to bring your valuable data back.

The Linux system fails to boot after any instance of corruption or damage to MBR, as the OS failed to fetch the partition table information. In Linux OS based computer system, you can access the MBR through 'dd' command. The 'dd' command is responsible for data backup, restoration and erasing of partition table. As the command gives very high level of authority over several things, it sometimes overwrite or corrupt the MBR.

Usually, such cases of MBR corruption is common in case of dual boot systems, where you have installed other operating systems like Windows along with Linux. The reasons behind MBR corruption can be anything, including virus/malware intrusion, unexpected system shut-down etc.

In order to resolve the system you need to repair the MBR. You can use the 'fsck' utility to scan the hard drive for possible corruptions and repair them as well. The 'fsck' is an inbuilt utility in Linux to check the disk for its consistency. However, sometimes, with severe corruption, 'fsck' fails to repair the disk and simply exits without doing nothing. If you are an advanced user, you can perform Linux recovery by editing the MBR through any disk editor utility or provide the address of an alternate partition table.

However, by all the above means, if you fail to resolve the problem, you need to look for a valid backup to restore the data back. Failing to the same, you are left with a single option to format the hard drive and make a fresh installation of Linux. After that, you can run any data recovery Linux software to recover the formatted data back.

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In the Linux system, the 'mount' command is used to enable the partitions. Moreover, with the 'mount' command, the Linux OS is triggered to avail the data and information of the particular partition to be accessed. However, sometimes, the command fails to mount the partition and following which, all the data in that particular drive becomes completely inaccessible. The cause may be a possible corruption to the file system of the Linux system and you can use any Linux recovery software to recover back the data.

Sensing a file system based error, if you run the 'fsck' utility to mount, you may come across the below error messages:

"fsck.ext2: Bad magic number in super-block while trying to open /dev/mapper/mpath0p1


The superblock could not be read or does not describe a correct ext2

file system. If the device is valid and it really contains an ext2

file system (and not swap or ufs or something else), then the superblock

is corrupt, and you might try running e2fsck with an alternate superblock:

e2fsck -b 8193 "


"[/dev/mapper]fsck -a /dev/mapper/mpath0p1

fsck 1.35 (28-Feb-2004)

ext2fs_check_if_mount: Input/output error while determining whether /dev/mapper/mpath0p1 is mounted."

The above error messages can clearly indicate towards a possible file system corruption issue and you can run the 'fsck' utility itself to fix the errors.

'fsck' is an inbuilt utility in Linux to check the file system based errors and at many times fixes the same. However, with severe corruption, 'fsck' simply exits without doing anything. In such a case, you have to format the hard drive and make fresh partitions. After that, restore the data from the backup. In case, you do not possess a valid backup, you can always use a Linux data recovery utility to retrieve the lost data safely.

These Linux data recoverysoftware are extremely powerful and can recover all your lost, deleted or even formatted data from any instance of data loss from your Linux OS based drives. Moreover, with friendly interfaces, the software can be easily used without needing any expertise.

Stellar Phoenix Linux Data Recovery is a pretty useful Linux file recovery application for all the users who have lost, deleted, formatted their data from their Linux system. The software works well with almost all available Linux versions and is absolutely risk-free on the parts of the media as well as the data in it.

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With technological advancement, now you can install and use more than one operating system in a single computer. This type of configuration, which is known as dual-boot, offers you to enjoy the features of multiple operating systems. However, sometimes, while making dual boot systems with different Linux operating systems the metadata structure gets corrupted. This kind of corruption results in the loss or inaccessibility of your valuable data and the need for advanced Linux data recovery arises to recover the data back.

In order to configure your system as dual-boot with another flavor of Linux, you are trying to install Fedora Core and come around a threatening error message. The error can be read as below:

"The partition table on device is corrupted. To create new partitions it must be initialized, causing the loss of all data on this drive"

After encountering the above error, the system may boot without any visible problem. However, if you go to the System Tools → Hardware browser, you will find out that the usual green bar for the hard drive is no longer there. The system is not showing the hard drive volumes and if you run the utility 'fdisk' on the drive, you may get a long set of messages. The messages that you receive, can be stated as follows:

"Disk /dev/hdc: 100.0 GB, 100030242816 bytes

16 heads, 63 sectors/track, 193821 cylinders

Units = cylinders of 1008 * 512 = 516096 bytes

Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System

Partition 1 does not end on cylinder boundary.

Partition 2 does not end on cylinder boundary.

Partition table entries are not in disk order"


From the first error message as well as the the second one, it is almost sure that there is a possible corruption to the partition table of your system.

In Linux systems, partition table contains all the vital information about the hard drive partitions and these information are indeed extremely necessary for the operating system to access and manage the partitions. Therefore, if there occurs any problem to the partition table, data in the drive becomes completely inaccessible.

You can resolve the partition table corruption problems by formatting the hard drive and making a fresh installation of Linux. With formatting all your data from the drive will be erased and you need to restore them from a valid backup. However, if you do not have any valid backup, the only way to recover your valuable data back from the Linux hard drive is to run any efficient data recovery Linux software.

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Most of the Linux operating systems are open source applications and are regularly modified in order to safe-guard the system against any new threat in the form of viruses, malwares or other technical drawbacks. An user can witness new changes and improvements in Linux almost every day. In spite of all the good things, still there are occasions, which lead to the loss or inaccessibility of valuable data from your Linux system. Among such instances of data loss, hard drive crash is one. Hard drive of your system contains many important data of yours' and anything like a crash of it can be an obvious hue and cry. However, with the help of advanced Linux data recovery, all your seemingly lost data can be recovered back.

When the hard drive crashes, though the data in the hard drive exists, you are unable to access the same. Apart from any physical damage, there can be many other problems behind the crashing of your hard drive, such as corruption of the file system, virus/malware infection, accidental deletion of the system files, operating system malfunction, other application contradictions etc. In any of these situations you may come across the following symptoms, which may signal a possible hard drive crash:

Symptoms of Linux hard drive crash:

   1. The system is not booting properly or taking a much longer boot time.
   2. Unusual black screen at the start-up.
   3. After booting up, the Linux system hangs infinitely.
   4. Some files, folders or even the drives are not listed surprisingly.
   5. The system fails to recognize the hard drive/volumes.
   6. The system stops responding in the middle of many operations or restarts quite often.
   7. Flashes error messages indicating the damage to the file system or the corruption of Superblock etc.

In all the above situations, your precious data in the Linux hard drive is under serious case of data loss. However, you may be happy to know that under any instance of data loss, data from the media is never lost permanently, until that is being overwritten. Hence, if you take proper measures to avoid your data being overwritten and use any efficient data recovery Linux utility, then, all your data can be definitely recovered back.

These Linux recovery software are developed with powerful algorithms to locate the lost or inaccessible data from the troubled Linux hard drive and recover them back with ease. Moreover, with highly interactive user interfaces, these utilities are easy to use even without much technical knowledge

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The Linux operating system is supposed to be the most regularly updated operating system among its counterparts. Apart from this fact, for its advanced technology and features, a large number of users prefer Linux. But, in Linux, the user can not get everything preloaded just like Windows. There is an unique command for each operation in Linux and from the long list of regularly used commands, the 'mount' command lets the operating system to learn about the file system and lists in the file system hierarchy of the computer, which lets us access the the particular drives. However, sometimes, the 'mount' command fails to work and the OS can not be able to learn the drives resulting in the inaccessibility of them. In such situations of data loss or inaccessibility, Linux data recovery can help you recover your valuable data back.

There can be a possible file system corruption, which has led this abrupt behavior of the Linux system following the failure of the 'mount' command. The 'fsck' is a built-in command-line utility in Linux operating system, which checks the consistency of the file system and repairs the same, if finds any error. After encountering the above situation, if you try to mount the drives using the 'fsck' command, you may encounter some more error messages. The error messages may be read as below:

"[/dev/mapper]fsck -a /dev/mapper/mpath0p1
fsck 1.35 (28-Feb-2004)
ext2fs_check_if_mount: Input/output error while determining whether /dev/mapper/mpath0p1 is mounted."


"fsck.ext2: Bad magic number in super-block while trying to open /dev/mapper/mpath0p1
The superblock could not be read or does not describe a correct ext2
file system. If the device is valid and it really contains an ext2
file system (and not swap or ufs or something else), then the superblock
is corrupt, and you might try running e2fsck with an alternate superblock:
e2fsck -b 8193 <device>"

The above error messages clearly state that the file system has been corrupted. In order to resolve the issue, you need to boot the Linux system from the safe mode and run the 'fsck' command to repair the corruption. However, if the file system has been severely corrupted, 'fsck' simply exits without doing anything. In such a case, if you are an expert user, you can input the next super-block address or the size of the same to the 'fsck' command, which can help the utility to gather the information from the next super-block and do the job.

However, failing to the above resolution method, you need to opt for any Linux drive recovery software to bring back your precious data.

Stellar Phoenix Linux Data Recovery is an efficient as well as 100% risk-free Linux recovery utility of the current time. The utility has been trusted by a number of users for its power-packed scanning algorithms and ability to recover lost, deleted, formatted or inaccessible data from any troubled Linux drive irrespective of the complexity of the data loss situations.

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